Linear Gaussian filtering and smoothing (discrete)

Provided is an example of discrete, linear state-space models on which one can perform Bayesian filtering and smoothing in order to obtain a posterior distribution over a latent state trajectory based on noisy observations. In order to understand the theory behind these methods in detail we refer to [1] and [2].

References: > [1] Särkkä, Simo, and Solin, Arno. Applied Stochastic Differential Equations. Cambridge University Press, 2019.
> > [2] Särkkä, Simo. Bayesian Filtering and Smoothing. Cambridge University Press, 2013.
import numpy as np

import probnum as pn
from probnum import filtsmooth, randvars, randprocs
from probnum.problems import TimeSeriesRegressionProblem
rng = np.random.default_rng(seed=123)
# Make inline plots vector graphics instead of raster graphics
%matplotlib inline
from IPython.display import set_matplotlib_formats

set_matplotlib_formats("pdf", "svg")

# Plotting
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import matplotlib.gridspec as gridspec"../../probnum.mplstyle")
/tmp/ipykernel_125474/ DeprecationWarning: `set_matplotlib_formats` is deprecated since IPython 7.23, directly use `matplotlib_inline.backend_inline.set_matplotlib_formats()`
  set_matplotlib_formats("pdf", "svg")

Linear Discrete State-Space Model: Car Tracking

We showcase the arguably most simple case in which we consider the following state-space model. Consider matrices \(A \in \mathbb{R}^{d \times d}\) and \(H \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times d}\) where \(d\) is the state dimension and \(m\) is the dimension of the measurements. Then we define the dynamics and the measurement model as follows:

For \(k = 1, \dots, K\) and \(x_0 \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu_0, \Sigma_0)\):

\[\begin{split}\begin{align} \boldsymbol{x}_k &\sim \mathcal{N}(\boldsymbol{A} \, \boldsymbol{x}_{k-1}, \boldsymbol{Q}) \\ \boldsymbol{y}_k &\sim \mathcal{N}(\boldsymbol{H} \, \boldsymbol{x}_k, \boldsymbol{R}) \end{align}\end{split}\]
This defines a dynamics model that assumes a state \(\boldsymbol{x}_k\) in a discrete sequence of states arising from a linear projection of the previous state \(x_{k-1}\) corrupted with additive Gaussian noise under a process noise covariance matrix \(Q\).
Similarly, the measurements \(\boldsymbol{y}_k\) are assumed to be linear projections of the latent state under additive Gaussian noise according to a measurement noise covariance \(R\). In the following example we consider projections and covariances that are constant over the state and measurement trajectories (linear time invariant, or LTI). Note that this can be generalized to a linear time-varying state-space model, as well. Then \(A\) is a function \(A: \mathbb{T} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{d \times d}\) and \(H\) is a function \(H: \mathbb{T} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{m \times d}\) where \(\mathbb{T}\) is the “time dimension”.

In other words, here, every relationship is linear and every distribution is a Gaussian distribution. Under these simplifying assumptions it is possible to obtain a filtering posterior distribution over the state trajectory \((\boldsymbol{x}_k)_{k=1}^{K}\) by using a Kalman Filter. The example is taken from Example 3.6 in [2].

Define State-Space Model

I. Discrete Dynamics Model: Linear, Time-Invariant, Gaussian Transitions

state_dim = 4
observation_dim = 2
delta_t = 0.2

# Define linear transition operator
dynamics_transition_matrix = np.eye(state_dim) + delta_t * np.diag(np.ones(2), 2)

# Define process noise (covariance) matrix
noise_matrix = (
    np.diag(np.array([delta_t ** 3 / 3, delta_t ** 3 / 3, delta_t, delta_t]))
    + np.diag(np.array([delta_t ** 2 / 2, delta_t ** 2 / 2]), 2)
    + np.diag(np.array([delta_t ** 2 / 2, delta_t ** 2 / 2]), -2)

To create a discrete, LTI Gaussian dynamics model, probnum provides the LTIGaussian class.

# Create discrete, Linear Time-Invariant Gaussian dynamics model
noise = randvars.Normal(mean=np.zeros(state_dim), cov=noise_matrix)
dynamics_model = randprocs.markov.discrete.LTIGaussian(

II. Discrete Measurement Model: Linear, Time-Invariant, Gaussian Measurements

measurement_marginal_variance = 0.5
measurement_matrix = np.eye(observation_dim, state_dim)
measurement_noise_matrix = measurement_marginal_variance * np.eye(observation_dim)
noise = randvars.Normal(mean=np.zeros(observation_dim), cov=measurement_noise_matrix)
measurement_model = randprocs.markov.discrete.LTIGaussian(

III. Initial State Random Variable

mu_0 = np.zeros(state_dim)
sigma_0 = 0.5 * measurement_marginal_variance * np.eye(state_dim)
initial_state_rv = randvars.Normal(mean=mu_0, cov=sigma_0)
prior_process = randprocs.markov.MarkovSequence(
    transition=dynamics_model, initrv=initial_state_rv, initarg=0.0

Generate Data for the State-Space Model

Next, sample both latent states and noisy observations from the specified state-space model.

time_grid = np.arange(0.0, 10.0, step=delta_t)
latent_states, observations = randprocs.markov.utils.generate_artificial_measurements(
regression_problem = TimeSeriesRegressionProblem(
    measurement_models=[measurement_model] * len(time_grid),

Kalman Filtering

I. Kalman Filter

kalman_filter = filtsmooth.gaussian.Kalman(prior_process)

II. Perform Kalman Filtering + Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoothing

state_posterior, _ = kalman_filter.filtsmooth(regression_problem)

The method filtsmooth returns a KalmanPosterior object which provides convenience functions for e.g. sampling and interpolation. We can also extract the just computed posterior smoothing state variables. This yields a list of Gaussian random variables from which we can extract the statistics in order to visualize them.

grid = state_posterior.locations
posterior_state_rvs = (
)  # List of <num_time_points> Normal Random Variables
posterior_state_means = posterior_state_rvs.mean  # Shape: (num_time_points, state_dim)
posterior_state_covs = (
)  # Shape: (num_time_points, state_dim, state_dim)

Visualize Results

state_fig = plt.figure()
state_fig_gs = gridspec.GridSpec(ncols=2, nrows=2, figure=state_fig)

ax_00 = state_fig.add_subplot(state_fig_gs[0, 0])
ax_01 = state_fig.add_subplot(state_fig_gs[0, 1])
ax_10 = state_fig.add_subplot(state_fig_gs[1, 0])
ax_11 = state_fig.add_subplot(state_fig_gs[1, 1])

# Plot means
mu_x_1, mu_x_2, mu_x_3, mu_x_4 = [posterior_state_means[:, i] for i in range(state_dim)]

ax_00.plot(grid, mu_x_1, label="posterior mean")
ax_01.plot(grid, mu_x_2)
ax_10.plot(grid, mu_x_3)
ax_11.plot(grid, mu_x_4)

# Plot marginal standard deviations
std_x_1, std_x_2, std_x_3, std_x_4 = [
    np.sqrt(posterior_state_covs[:, i, i]) for i in range(state_dim)

    mu_x_1 - 1.96 * std_x_1,
    mu_x_1 + 1.96 * std_x_1,
    label="1.96 marginal stddev",
ax_01.fill_between(grid, mu_x_2 - 1.96 * std_x_2, mu_x_2 + 1.96 * std_x_2, alpha=0.2)
ax_10.fill_between(grid, mu_x_3 - 1.96 * std_x_3, mu_x_3 + 1.96 * std_x_3, alpha=0.2)
ax_11.fill_between(grid, mu_x_4 - 1.96 * std_x_4, mu_x_4 + 1.96 * std_x_4, alpha=0.2)

# Plot groundtruth
obs_x_1, obs_x_2 = [observations[:, i] for i in range(observation_dim)]

ax_00.scatter(time_grid, obs_x_1, marker=".", label="measurements")
ax_01.scatter(time_grid, obs_x_2, marker=".")

# Add labels etc.

handles, labels = ax_00.get_legend_handles_labels()
state_fig.legend(handles, labels, loc="center left", bbox_to_anchor=(1, 0.5))