# Source code for probnum.diffeq._probsolve_ivp

```
"""Convenience functions for Gaussian filtering and smoothing.
References
----------
.. [1] https://arxiv.org/pdf/1610.05261.pdf
.. [2] https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.09737
.. [3] https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.03440
.. [4] https://arxiv.org/pdf/2004.00623.pdf
"""
from typing import Callable, Optional
import numpy as np
from probnum import problems, randprocs
from probnum.diffeq import _utils, odefilter
from probnum.typing import ArrayLike, FloatLike
__all__ = ["probsolve_ivp"]
METHODS = {
"EK0": odefilter.approx_strategies.EK0,
"EK1": odefilter.approx_strategies.EK1,
}
"""Implemented methods for the filtering-based ODE solver."""
# This interface function is allowed to have many input arguments.
# Having many input arguments implies having many local arguments,
# so we need to disable both here.
# pylint: disable="too-many-arguments,too-many-locals"
[docs]def probsolve_ivp(
f: Callable,
t0: FloatLike,
tmax: FloatLike,
y0: ArrayLike,
df: Optional[Callable] = None,
method: str = "EK0",
dense_output: bool = True,
algo_order: int = 2,
adaptive: bool = True,
atol: FloatLike = 1e-2,
rtol: FloatLike = 1e-2,
step: Optional[FloatLike] = None,
diffusion_model: str = "dynamic",
time_stops: Optional[ArrayLike] = None,
):
r"""Solve an initial value problem with a filtering-based ODE solver.
Numerically computes a Gauss-Markov process which solves numerically
the initial value problem (IVP) based on a system of first order
ordinary differential equations (ODEs)
.. math:: \dot x(t) = f(t, x(t)), \quad x(t_0) = x_0,
\quad t \in [t_0, T]
by regarding it as a (nonlinear) Gaussian filtering (and smoothing)
problem [3]_. For some configurations it recovers certain multistep
methods [1]_.
Convergence rates of filtering [2]_ and smoothing [4]_ are
comparable to those of methods of Runge-Kutta type.
This function turns a prior-string into an :class:`ODEPrior`, a
method-string into a filter/smoother of class :class:`GaussFiltSmooth`,
creates a :class:`ODEFilter` object and calls the :meth:`solve()` method.
For advanced usage we recommend to do this process manually which
enables advanced methods of tuning the algorithm.
This function supports the methods:
extended Kalman filtering based on a zero-th order Taylor
approximation (EKF0),
extended Kalman filtering (EKF1),
unscented Kalman filtering (UKF),
extended Kalman smoothing based on a zero-th order Taylor
approximation (EKS0),
extended Kalman smoothing (EKS1), and
unscented Kalman smoothing (UKS).
For adaptive step-size selection of ODE filters, we implement the
scheme proposed by Schober et al. (2019), and further examined
by Bosch et al (2021), where the local error estimate is derived
from the local, calibrated uncertainty estimate.
Arguments
---------
f
ODE vector field.
t0
Initial time point.
tmax
Final time point.
y0
Initial value.
df
Jacobian of the ODE vector field.
adaptive
Whether to use adaptive steps or not. Default is `True`.
If `False`, a `step` needs to be specified.
atol
Absolute tolerance of the adaptive step-size selection scheme.
Optional. Default is ``1e-4``.
rtol
Relative tolerance of the adaptive step-size selection scheme.
Optional. Default is ``1e-4``.
step
Step size. If atol and rtol are not specified,
this step-size is used for a fixed-step ODE solver.
If they are specified, this only affects the first step. Optional.
Default is None, in which case the first step is chosen
as prescribed by :meth:`propose_firststep`.
Is required only when `adaptive=False`.
algo_order
Order of the algorithm. This amounts to choosing the
number of derivatives of an integrated Wiener process prior.
For too high orders, process noise covariance matrices become singular.
For integrated Wiener processes, this maximum seems to be
``num_derivatives=11`` (using standard ``float64``).
It is possible that higher orders may work for you.
The type of prior relates to prior assumptions
about the derivative of the solution.
The higher the order of the algorithm, the faster the convergence,
but also, the higher-dimensional
(and thus the more expensive) the state space.
method : str, optional
Which method is to be used. Default is ``EK0`` which is the
method proposed by Schober et al.. The available
options are
================================================ ==============
Extended Kalman filtering/smoothing (0th order) ``'EK0'``
Extended Kalman filtering/smoothing (1st order) ``'EK1'``
================================================ ==============
First order extended Kalman filtering and smoothing methods (``EK1``)
require Jacobians of the RHS-vector field of the IVP.
That is, the argument ``df`` needs to be specified.
They are likely to perform better than zeroth order methods in
terms of (A-)stability and "meaningful uncertainty estimates".
While we recommend to use correct capitalization for the method string,
lower-case letters will be capitalized internally.
dense_output : bool
Whether we want dense output. Optional. Default is ``True``.
For the ODE filter, dense output requires smoothing,
so if ``dense_output`` is False, no smoothing is performed;
but when it is ``True``, the filter solution is smoothed.
diffusion_model : str
Which diffusion model to use.
The choices are ``'constant'`` and ``'dynamic'``,
which implement different styles of
online calibration of the underlying diffusion [5]_.
Optional. Default is ``'dynamic'``.
time_stops: np.ndarray
Time-points through which the solver must step. Optional.
Default is None.
Returns
-------
solution : ODEFilterSolution
Solution of the ODE problem.
Can be evaluated at and sampled from at arbitrary grid points.
Further, it contains fields:
t : :obj:`np.ndarray`, shape=(N,)
Mesh used by the solver to compute the solution.
It includes the initial time :math:`t_0` but not necessarily the
final time :math:`T`.
y : :obj:`list` of :obj:`RandomVariable`, length=N
Discrete-time solution at times :math:`t_1, ..., t_N`,
as a list of random variables.
The means and covariances can be accessed with ``solution.y.mean``
and ``solution.y.cov``.
Raises
------
ValueError
If 'diffusion_model' is not in the list of supported diffusion models.
ValueError
If 'method' is not in the list of supported methods.
See Also
--------
ODEFilter :
Solve IVPs with Gaussian filtering and smoothing
ODEFilterSolution :
Solution of ODE problems based on Gaussian filtering and smoothing.
References
----------
.. [1] Schober, M., Särkkä, S. and Hennig, P..
A probabilistic model for the numerical solution of initial
value problems.
Statistics and Computing, 2019.
.. [2] Kersting, H., Sullivan, T.J., and Hennig, P..
Convergence rates of Gaussian ODE filters.
2019.
.. [3] Tronarp, F., Kersting, H., Särkkä, S., and Hennig, P..
Probabilistic solutions to ordinary differential equations as
non-linear Bayesian filtering: a new perspective.
Statistics and Computing, 2019.
.. [4] Tronarp, F., Särkkä, S., and Hennig, P..
Bayesian ODE solvers: the maximum a posteriori estimate.
2019.
.. [5] Bosch, N., and Hennig, P., and Tronarp, F..
Calibrated Adaptive Probabilistic ODE Solvers.
2021.
Examples
--------
>>> from probnum.diffeq import probsolve_ivp
>>> import numpy as np
Solve a simple logistic ODE with fixed steps.
>>>
>>> def f(t, x):
... return 4*x*(1-x)
>>>
>>> y0 = np.array([0.15])
>>> t0, tmax = 0., 1.5
>>> solution = probsolve_ivp(f, t0, tmax, y0, step=0.1, adaptive=False)
>>> print(np.round(solution.states.mean, 2))
[[0.15]
[0.21]
[0.28]
[0.37]
[0.47]
[0.57]
[0.66]
[0.74]
[0.81]
[0.87]
[0.91]
[0.94]
[0.96]
[0.97]
[0.98]
[0.99]]
Other methods are easily accessible.
>>> def df(t, x):
... return np.array([4. - 8 * x])
>>> solution = probsolve_ivp(
... f, t0, tmax, y0, df=df, method="EK1",
... algo_order=2, step=0.1, adaptive=False
... )
>>> print(np.round(solution.states.mean, 2))
[[0.15]
[0.21]
[0.28]
[0.37]
[0.47]
[0.57]
[0.66]
[0.74]
[0.81]
[0.87]
[0.91]
[0.93]
[0.96]
[0.97]
[0.98]
[0.99]]
"""
# Create IVP object
ivp = problems.InitialValueProblem(t0=t0, tmax=tmax, y0=np.asarray(y0), f=f, df=df)
steprule = _utils.construct_steprule(
ivp=ivp, adaptive=adaptive, step=step, atol=atol, rtol=rtol
)
# Construct diffusion model.
diffusion_model = diffusion_model.lower()
if diffusion_model not in ["constant", "dynamic"]:
raise ValueError("Diffusion model is not supported.")
if diffusion_model == "constant":
diffusion = randprocs.markov.continuous.ConstantDiffusion()
else:
diffusion = randprocs.markov.continuous.PiecewiseConstantDiffusion(t0=ivp.t0)
# Create solver
prior_process = randprocs.markov.integrator.IntegratedWienerProcess(
initarg=ivp.t0,
num_derivatives=algo_order,
wiener_process_dimension=ivp.dimension,
diffuse=True,
forward_implementation="sqrt",
backward_implementation="sqrt",
)
method = method.upper()
if method not in METHODS:
raise ValueError("Method is not supported.")
approx_strategy = METHODS[method]()
solver = odefilter.ODEFilter(
steprule=steprule,
prior_process=prior_process,
approx_strategy=approx_strategy,
with_smoothing=dense_output,
diffusion_model=diffusion,
)
return solver.solve(ivp=ivp, stop_at=time_stops)
```